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voltdb — Performs management tasks on the current server, such as compiling the application catalog and starting the database.


voltdb collect [args] voltdbroot-directory

voltdb compile [args] [DDL-file ...]

voltdb create [args] application-catalog

voltdb recover [args]

voltdb add [args]

voltdb rejoin [args]


The voltdb command performs local management functions on the current system, including:

  • Compiling schema files and stored procedures into an application catalog

  • Starting the database process

  • Collecting log files into a single compressed file

The action that is performed depends on which start action you specify to the voltdb command:

  • collect — the collect option collects system and process logs related to the VoltDB database process on the current system and compresses them into a single file. This command is helpful when reporting problems to VoltDB support. The only required argument to the collect command is the path to the voltdbroot directory where the database was run. By default, the root directory is a subfolder, voltdbroot, in the current working directory where the database was started.

  • compile — the compile option compiles the database schema and stored procedures into an application catalog. You can specify one or more data definition language (DDL) files that describe the schema of the database, the stored procedures, and the partitioning columns. See Appendix A, Supported SQL DDL Statements for the SQL statements supported in the DDL files. The output of the compile action is an application catalog that can be used to start the VoltDB database. The default output filename is catalog.jar. However, you can use the --output argument to specify a different file name or location. See the next section for other arguments to the compile action.

  • create — the create option starts a new, empty database. This option is useful when starting a database for the first time or if you are updating the catalog by performing a save, shutdown, startup, and restore. (See Chapter 7, Updating Your VoltDB Database for information on updating your application catalog.)

  • recover — the recover option starts the database and restores a previous state from the last known snapshot or from command logs. VoltDB uses the snapshot and command log paths specified in the deployment file when looking for content to restore. If you specify recover as the startup action and no snapshots or command logs can be found, startup will fail.

  • add — the add option adds the current node to an existing cluster. See Section 7.4, “Updating the Hardware Configuration” for details on elastic scaling.

  • rejoin — If a node on a K-safe cluster fails, you can use the rejoin start action to have the node (or a replacement node) rejoin the cluster. The host-id you specify with the host argument can be any node still present in the database cluster; it does not have to be the host node specified when the cluster was started. You can also request a blocking rejoin by including the --blocking flag.

Finally, when starting a new database you can include the --replica flag to create a recipient for database replication.

When starting the database, the voltdb command uses Java to instantiate the process. It is possible to customize the Java environment, if necessary, by passing command line arguments to Java through the following environment variables:

  • LOG4J_CONFIG_PATH — Specifies an alternate Log4J configuration file.

  • VOLTDB_HEAPMAX — Specifies the maximum heap size for the Java process. Specify the value as an integer number of megabytes. By default, the maximum heap size is set to 2048.

  • VOLTDB_OPTS — Specifies all other Java command line arguments. You must include both the command line flag and argument. For example, this environment variable can be used to specify system properties using the -D flag:

    export VOLTDB_OPTS="-DmyApp.DebugFlag=true"

Log Collection Arguments

The following arguments apply specifically to the collect action.


Specifies the number of days of log files to collect. For example, using --days=1 will collect data from the last 24 hours. By default, VoltDB collects 14 days (2 weeks) worth of logs.


Lists the actions that will be taken, including the files that will be collected, but does not actually perform the collection or upload.


Specifies that the process will not prompt for input, such as whether to delete the output file after uploading is complete. This argument is useful when starting the collect action from within a script.


Specifies the prefix for the resulting output file. The default prefix is "voltdb_logs".


Specifies that the heap dump not be included in the collection. The heap dump is usually significantly larger than the other log files and can be excluded to save space.


Specifies a host server to which the output file will uploaded using SFTP.


Specifies the SFTP account to use when using the --upload option. If you specify --upload but not --username, you will be prompted for the account name.


Specifies the password to use when using the --upload option. If you specify --upload but not --password, you will be prompted for the password.

Schema Compilation Arguments

The following arguments apply specifically to the compile action.

-c, --classpath={Java-classpath}

Specifies additional classpath locations for the compilation process to search when looking for stored procedure class files. The classpath you specify with this argument is appended to any existing classpath definition.

-o, --output={application-catalog}

Specifies the file and path name to use for the application catalog that is created as a result of the compilation.

Database Startup Arguments

The following arguments apply to the add, create, recover, and rejoin start actions.


Specifies the application catalog containing the schema and stored procedures to load when starting the database. Two special notes concerning the catalog:

  • The catalog must be identical on all nodes when starting a cluster.

  • The catalog specified on the command line is only used when creating a new database.

If you recover previous data using the recover start action, the catalog saved with the snapshot or command log is loaded and any catalog you specify on the command line is ignored.

-H, --host={host-id}

Specifies the network address of the node that coordinates the starting of the database or the adding or rejoining of a node. When starting a database, all nodes must specify the same host address. Note that once the database starts and the cluster is complete, the role of the host node is complete and all nodes become peers.

When rejoining or adding a node, you can specify any node still in the cluster as the host. The host for an add or rejoin operation does not have to be the same node as the host specified when the database started.

The default if you do not specify a host when creating or recovering the database is localhost. In other words, a single node cluster running on the current system. You must specify a host on the command line when adding or rejoining a node.

If the host node is using an internal port other than the default (3021), you must specify the port as part of the host string, in the format host:port.

-d, --deployment={deployment-file}

Specifies the location of the database configuration file. The configuration file is an XML file that defines the database configuration, including the initial size of the cluster and which options are enabled when the database is started. See Appendix E, Deployment File (deployment.xml) for a complete description of the syntax of the configuration file.

The default, if you do not specify a deployment file, is a single node cluster without K-safety and with two sites per host.

-l, --license={license-file}

Specifies the location of the license file, which is required when using the VoltDB Enterprise Edition. The argument is ignored when using the community edition.

-B, --background

Starts the server process in the background (as a daemon process).


For the rejoin operation only, specifies that the database should block client transactions for the affected partitions until the rejoin is complete.

Network Configuration Arguments

In addition to the arguments listed above, there are additional arguments that specify the network configuration for server ports and interfaces when starting a VoltDB database. In most cases, the default values can and should be accepted for these settings. The exceptions are the external and internal interfaces that should be specified whenever there are multiple network interfaces on a single machine.

You can also, optionally, specify a unique network interface for individual ports by preceding the port number with the interface's IP address (or hostname) followed by a colon. Specifying the network interface as part of an individual port setting overrides the default interface for that port set by --externalinterface or --internalinterface.

The network configuration arguments to the voltdb command are listed below. See the appendix on server configuration options in the VoltDB Administrator's Guide for more information about network configuration options.


Specifies the default network interface to use for external ports, such as the admin and client ports.

--internalinterface ={ip-address}

Specifies the default network interface to use for internal communication, such as the internal port.


Specifies the internal port used to communicate between cluster nodes.


Specifies the client port.


Specifies the admin port. The --admin flag overrides the admin port setting in the deployment file.


Specifies the http port. The --http flag both sets the port number (and optionally the interface) and enables the http port, overriding the http setting, if any, in the deployment file.


Specifies the first of three replication ports used for database replication. The --replication flag overrides the replication port setting in the deployment file.


Specifies the zookeeper port. By default, the zookeeper port is bound to the server's internal interface (


The first example uses the compile action to create an application catalog from two DDL files. The --classpath argument specifies the location of the stored procedure class files.

$ voltdb compile --classpath=./obj employees.sql company.sql

The next example shows the command for creating a database running the voter sample application, using a custom configuration file, 2nodedeploy.xml, and the node zeus as the host.

$ voltdb create voter.jar --deployment=2nodedeploy.xml \

The following example takes advantage of the defaults for the host and deployment arguments to start a single-node database on the current system using the voter catalog.

$ voltdb create voter.jar