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CREATE PROCEDURE AS — Defines a stored procedure composed of a SQL query.


CREATE PROCEDURE procedure-name
[PARTITION ON TABLE table-name COLUMN column-name [PARAMETER position]]
[ALLOW role-name [,...]]
AS sql-statement

CREATE PROCEDURE procedure-name
[PARTITION ON TABLE table-name COLUMN column-name [PARAMETER position]]
[ALLOW role-name [,...]]
AS ### source-code ### LANGUAGE GROOVY


You must declare stored procedures as part of the schema to make them accessible at runtime. Use CREATE PROCEDURE AS when declaring stored procedures directly within the DDL statement. There are two forms of the CREATE PROCEDURE AS statement:

  • The SQL query form supports a single SQL query statement in the AS clause. The SQL statement can contain question marks (?) as placeholders that are filled in at runtime with the arguments to the procedure call.

  • The embedded program code form supports the inclusion of program code in the AS clause. The embedded program code is opened and closed by three pound signs (###) and followed by the LANGUAGE clause specifying the programming language in use. VoltDB currently supports Groovy as an embedded language. (Supported in compiled application catalogs only. See the appendix on Using Application Catalogs in the VoltDB Administrator's Guide for details.)

In both cases, the procedure name must follow the naming conventions for Java class names. For example, the name is case-sensitive and cannot contain any white space.

When creating single-partitioned procedures, you can either specify the partitioning in a separate PARTITION PROCEDURE statement or you can include the PARTITION ON clause in the CREATE PROCEDURE statement. Creating and partitioning stored procedures in a single statement is recommended because there are certain cases where procedures with complex queries must be partitioned and cannot be compiled without the partitioning information. For example, queries that join two partitioned tables must be run in a single-partitioned procedure and must join the tables on their partitioning columns.

Partitioning a stored procedure means that the procedure executes within a unique partition of the database. The partition in which the procedure executes is chosen at runtime based on the table and column specified by table-name and column-name. By default, VoltDB uses the first parameter to the stored procedure as the partitioning value. However, you can use the PARAMETER clause to specify a different parameter. The position value specifies the parameter position, counting from zero. (In other words, position 0 is the first parameter, position 1 is the second, and so on.)

The specified table must be a partitioned table and cannot be an export-only or replicated table.

If security is enabled at runtime, only those roles named in the ALLOW clause (or with the ALLPROC or ADMIN permissions) have permission to invoke the procedure. If security is not enabled at runtime, the ALLOW clause is ignored and all users have access to the stored procedure.


The following example defines a stored procedure, CountUsersByCountry, as a single SQL query with a placeholder for matching the country column:

    SELECT COUNT(*) FROM Users WHERE country=?;

The next example restricts access to the stored procedure to only users with the operator role. It also partitions the stored procedure on the userID column of the Accounts table. Note that the PARAMETER clause is used since the userID is the second parameter to the procedure:

CREATE PROCEDURE ChangeUserPassword 
    ALLOW operator 
    AS UPDATE Accounts SET HashedPassword=? WHERE userID=?;